Mosquitoes are one of the deadliest animals in the world, their ability to carry and spread disease to humans causes millions of deaths every year.
More than half of the world’s population live in areas where this mosquito species is present.Sustained mosquito control efforts are important to prevent outbreaks from these diseases.
There are several different types of mosquitoes and some have the ability to carry many different diseases.
Dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever are all transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Dengue is endemic in more than 128 countries, with 3.9 billion people at risk.The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of dengue.The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected female mosquito.
Aedes aegypti bites mostly during the day.
Flu-like symptoms occur 4-10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito; high fever accompanied by severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, nausea, vomitting, swollen glands or rash may occur.
The disease can develop into severe dengue which is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in some Asian and South American countries.
Symptoms of severe dengue include decrease in temperature, severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness and blood in vomit.
Medical care is critical for the next 24-48 hours after symptoms are recognized to avoid complications and risk of death.
There is no specific treatment for dengue and severe dengue.
Early detection and access to proper medical care lowers fatality rates to below 1 per cent.
A dengue vaccine has been licensed in a few countries by some National Regulatory Authorities for people 9-45 years of age, living in endemic settings.
Mosquito breeding sites that are close to homes are a significant risk factor for chikungunya.
The virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito.
Aedes bites during daylight hours, but peaks in activity at dawn and dusk.
Both species are found biting outdoors, but Aedes aegypti will also feed indoors.
Symptoms include fever and severe joint and muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.Joint pain is often debilitating and can vary in duration.
The onset of chikungunya, after a mosquito bite, usually occurs between 4 and 8 days, but can also range from 2 to 12 days.